The ancient Indian texts Upanishads are the philosophical sections of the Veda. The word is derived from the prefixes Upa (near) and ni (down) added to the root shad (to sit). The idea is that these are spiritual interpretations to be learnt from a Guru (master) by sitting down at his feet. Upanishad proclaims the glory of human spirit and have retained sway over Indian thought for over three thousand years. In them we come across enlightening discussions on the sacred relationship of the human soul with the ultimate reality.

Of the many, twelve Upanishads are considered important – Aithareya, Brahadaranyaka, Chandogya, Isa, Kena, Katha, Kausitaki, Mundaka, Mandukya, Prasna, Svetasvatara and Taittirya. Every Upanishad is considered as a sacred text of India.