Trade relations were increasing between north India
and western Asia. This resulted in increased cultural relations. The trade routes became busier, one of which became famous as the Old Silk Route. Indian tradesmen set up their trading colonies in Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, Miran, Kuchi, Qara-shahr, Turfan and other remote places which were later used by the Buddhist monks and missionaries as pointed out by Romila Thapar, eminent historian.
Not only the west, but the east also was on the threshold of a change of a different kind. A variety of kings, eras, and people - India was changing very fast. “The people of the south India
were seeking to define their personality and the northern India
found itself caught up in the turmoil of the happenings in central Asia”. The era of the Empire was disintegrating.