Mughal Empire

That was about the founder. Now let us turn to the rest of it. During the reign of emperor Humayun, who succeeded Babur, Sher Shah Suri of the Pashtoon tribe from Afghanistan attacked the Mughal territory and captured a large chunk of it. But Akbar, the next emperor, recaptured it and enlarged the limits of his empire.
Jehangir, who succeeded him was his son born to Mariam Ussamani, a Rajput princess. Jehangir’s successor Shah Jehan was his son born to Manmati, a Rajput princess. 

It was Shah Jehan who constructed Taj Mahal, the world famous monument in marble to perpetuate the memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. 

During Aurangazeb’s reign, the Mughal empire reached it zenith of its expansion. But corruption became rampant in the bureaucracy and continuous and internecine battles, when coupled with revolts from the farming community, the Mughal rule began to shake and shiver during the period of Aurangazeb. The dynasty was on the brink of a collapse, and it was accelerated by a 27-year long war with the Maratha rulers. And it fell. 

During the First war of Indian independence (1857), the revolting soldiers of the British army declared the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Emperor of India. But the British arrested this ‘Emperor of India’ and deported him to Myanmar (the erstwhile Burma) where he died in prison in 1862.